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Lung Disease
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Lung diseases are medical disorders that affect the lungs. The Us Dept. of Health and Human Services considers lung diseases to be serious problems because breathing problems may prevent the body from getting the oxygen it needs to stay healthy. Lung disorders are common problems, and lifestyle issues such as smoking and environmental issues have contributed to the debate and discussion about lung disease over the last 20 years. Second Opinion doctors and patients have addressed some of the most common lung diseases, including asthma, COPD and lung cancer, which is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in America.

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COPD
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Tuberculosis
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Pneumonia
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Featured Experts:

Michael Apostolakos, MD
Michael Apostolakos, M.D.
Paul C. Levy, MD
Paul C. Levy, MD
S. Shahzad Mustafa, MD
S. Shahzad Mustafa, MD
Michael Nead, MD, PhD
Michael Nead, MD, PhD
Cynthia Whitney, MD, MPH
Cynthia Whitney, MD, MPH

Michael Nead, MD, PhD

Associate Professor
Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care
University of Rochester Medical Center

Lung Disease

Lung diseases are medical disorders that affect the lungs. The Us Dept. of Health and Human Services considers lung diseases to be serious problems because breathing problems may prevent the body from getting the oxygen it needs to stay healthy. Lung disorders are common problems, and lifestyle issues such as smoking and environmental issues have contributed to the debate and discussion about lung disease over the last 20 years.

S. Shahzad Mustafa, MD

Allergist/Clinical Immunologist,
Rochester General Medical Group
Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine,
University of Rochester Medical Center 

After growing up in the Rochester area, Dr. Mustafa pursued his undergraduate studies at the Johns Hopkins University and attended medical school at SUNY Buffalo. He then completed his internal medicine training at the University of Colorado and stayed in Denver to complete his fellowship training in allergy and clinical immunology at the University of Colorado, National Jewish Health, and Children’s Hospital of Denver.

Pneumonia

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The American Lung Association is the leading organization working to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease through Education, Advocacy and Research.
For over 60 years, CDC has been dedicated to protecting health and promoting quality of life through the prevention and control of disease, injury, and disability.
One of the nation's top academic medical centers, the University of Rochester Medical Center forms the centerpiece of the University's health research, teaching, patient care, and community outreach missions.
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Interactive Medical Search logoConduct an off-site search for Pneumonia from MedlinePlus.  These up-to-date search results are based on search terms specific to Second Opinion Key Points.

Key Points: 

Key Point 1

Pneumonia can range in seriousness from mild to severe.  Severe pneumonia has a high mortality rate, so the key first steps are early diagnosis, assessment of severity, and deciding where to treat.

Key Point 2 

Pneumonia can be a very aggressive, even fatal disease.  Whether it’s viral or bacterial, it can be very virulent, so care should not be delayed.  Early treatment of pneumonia is associated with better outcomes.  A good first step toward prevention is getting the pneumonia vaccine which will prevent a fair number of pneumonias.

Cynthia Whitney, MD, MPH

Chief, Respiratory Diseases Branch
Medical Epidemiologist
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention

Dr. Cynthia G. Whitney is the Chief of the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases at the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Dr. Whitney has directed the pneumococcal epidemiology research program for the Respiratory Diseases Branch and has published extensively on pneumococcal disease epidemiology, drug resistance and vaccines. She has expertise in managing respiratory outbreaks. Dr.

Michael Apostolakos, M.D.

Director, Adult Critical Care & Critical Care Medicine
Professor of Medicine
University of Rochester Medical Center

Michael J. Apostolakos, MD, FCCP is currently Director of Adult Critical Care and Critical Care Medicine Fellowship at the University of Rochester Medical Center.  Dr. Apostolakos has been on staff at the University of Rochester Medical Center for twenty years and currently holds the academic rank of Professor of Medicine.  Dr. Apostolakos is Board-Certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease, and Critical Care.  From 2001 to 2012, Dr.

Paul C. Levy, MD

Pulmonologist
Professor & Vice Chairman, Dept of Medicine
University of Rochester Medical Center

Dr. Paul Levy obtained his medical degree from Ohio State University and completed an internal medicine residency at Strong Memorial Hospital where he also served as Chief Resident in Internal Medicine.  He then went on to complete a fellowship in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and joined the faculty at the University of Rochester in 1989. He served as the Clinical Director of the Pulmonary and Critical Care Division at the University of Rochester from 1992-2003.

Tuberculosis

Many Americans assume tuberculosis is a disease of the past, but the reality is one-third of the world's population is infected with TB - an estimated 10 to 15 million people in the United States alone. Second Opinion explores this historic disease and what you need to know to protect yourself.

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This is a good first place to turn for complete information about tuberculosis (and just about any other disease or condition). In conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, it offers MedlinePlus, an on-line medical encyclopedia that brings together authoritative information from a range of government agencies and private health-related organizations.
The CDC is part of the federal government Department of Health and Human Services. The National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), a unit within the CDC, develops and administers programs to prevent and control tuberculosis. Its website is one of the first places to turn for complete information about the disease, its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
NIAID leads TB research at the National Institutes of Health. NIAID supports not only studies to better understand how M. tuberculosis infects and causes disease in humans but also how the human immune system responds to it. This research will help to develop new tools to diagnose TB and to find better vaccines and new medicines against TB.
The American Lung Association is the oldest voluntary health organization in the United States. Founded in 1904 to fight tuberculosis, it now deals with a wide array of lung diseases but continues to run numerous research and educational programs that concentrate on tuberculosis. Its website offers valuable, in-depth information about the disease.
This site offers an excellent, well-organized overview of the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis.
Part of the United Nations system, The World Health Organization provides leadership on global health matters, helps shape the international health research agenda, monitors health trends, and sets standards for treatment. Its website offers much information about tuberculosis in the world and in America.
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Conduct an off-site search for Tuberculosis information from MedlinePlus.  These up-to-date search results are based on search terms specific to Second Opinion Key Points.

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Lung Cancer

With so much money going into cancer research and the success rate of cancer treatment increasing every year, why is a diagnosis of lung cancer still a death sentence? Experts who diagnose and treat the disease talk openly about the challenges of finding good diagnostics and a cure.

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Provides information on all forms of cancer and offers numerous brochures and publications for patients and healthcare professionals.
This U.S. government site provides information on lung cancer treatment, screening, prevention, genetics, clinical trials and supportive care.
The mission of the American Lung Association® is to prevent lung disease and promote lung health.
This is a free online smoking cessation program
The Lung Cancer Alliance is the only national non-profit organization dedicated solely to advocating for people living with lung cancer or those at risk for the disease. In addition to general information on the disease, the site includes a "Lung Cancer In The News" section.
Lungcancer.org is a service of CancerCare, a national non-profit organization that provides free professional counseling, educational programs, financial assistance and practical help to people with cancer, their loved ones and the bereaved.
Smokefree.gov is dedicated to helping people quit smoking. It allows them to choose the help that best fits their needs and includes: An online step-by-step cessation guide Local and state telephone quitlines NCI's national telephone quitline NCI's instant messaging service Publications, which may be downloaded, printed, or ordered
One of the most common forms of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos is lung cancer. This website offers a one-stop resource on all asbestos issues ranging from occupational exposure to mesothelioma treatment options.
Medline Plus
Medline Description: 

Conduct an off-site search for Lung Cancer information from MedlinePlus.  These up-to-date search results are based on search terms specific to Second Opinion Key Points.

COPD

(Source: NIH / National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute) COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary (PULL-mun-ary) disease, is a progressive disease that makes it hard to breathe. "Progressive" means the disease gets worse over time. COPD can cause coughing that produces large amounts of mucus (a slimy substance), wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and other symptoms. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Most people who have COPD smoke or used to smoke. Long-term exposure to other lung irritants—such as air pollution, chemical fumes, or dust—also may contribute to COPD.

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The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) provides global leadership for a research, training, and education program to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, and blood diseases and enhance the health of all individuals so that they can live longer and more fulfilling lives.
COPD-International is a nonprofit organization whose purpose is to provide information and interactive support for COPD patients, caregivers, families and concerned individuals.
NHLBI’s COPD Learn More Breathe Better® Campaign. The campaign is for men and women over age 45, especially those who smoke or have smoked, and those with risk associated with genetics or environmental exposures. In addition, the campaign aims to reach people who have been diagnosed with COPD as well as health care providers, particularly those in the primary care setting.
Now in its second century, the American Lung Association is the leading organization working to save lives, improve lung health and prevent lung disease.
MedlinePlus will direct you to information to help answer health questions. MedlinePlus brings together authoritative information from NLM, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other government agencies and health-related organizations.
Medline Plus
Medline Description: 

Conduct an off-site search for COPD from MedlinePlus.  These up-to-date search results are based on search terms specific to Second Opinion Key Points.

Key Points: 

 Key Point 1

COPD is  chronic obstruction of airflow through the airways.  It is common but often incompletely diagnosed or misdiagnosed.

Key Point 2

Proper treatment of COPD with medication and lifestyle changes can stabilize the disease and make you less symptomatic. 

 

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