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Childhood Cancer (Transcript)
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>>NARRATOR: "SECOND OPINION" IS BROUGHT TO YOU BY BLUE CROSS/BLUE SHIELD, ACCEPTED IN ALL 50 STATES. BLUE CROSS/BLUE SHIELD --LIVE FEARLESS.

 

>>ANNOUNCER:  "SECOND OPINION" IS PRODUCED IN CONJUNCTION WITH U.R. MEDICINE, PART OF UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER MEDICAL CENTER, ROCHESTER, NEW YORK.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  THIS IS "SECOND OPINION." I'M YOUR HOST, DR. PETER SALGO. THIS WEEK, MYTH OR MEDICINE -- "NEW CANCER TREATMENTS AREN'T SAFE FOR CHILDREN."

 

>> DR. JEFF ANDOLINA:  IT'S REALLY NOT KNOWN WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS THAT LEAD A CHILD TO HAVE CANCER.

 

>> AND SPECIAL GUEST CHRISTINE MARQUINO. SHE AND HER HUSBAND HEARD A DIAGNOSIS THAT EVERY PARENT IS TERRIFIED TO HEAR.

 

 

>> CHRISTINE:  THEY SAID, "THERE'S NO CURE." BUT WE DIDN'T REALLY TALK MUCH ABOUT PROGNOSIS. THE BEST WE COULD HOPE FOR IS STABILITY, REALLY.

 

>> SHE'S HERE TO SHARE THE EMOTIONAL STORY OF HER SON, DANNY. CHRISTINE, THANKS SO MUCH FOR BEING HERE. WE DO WANT TO HEAR ABOUT DANNY RIGHT AWAY, AND BEFORE WE GET TO THAT, I JUST WANT TO INTRODUCE YOU TO THE "WE," THIS PANEL OF EXPERTS THAT WE'VE GOT FOR YOU. DR. LISA HARRIS IS HERE. SHE'S FROM OUR LADY OF LOURDES MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, A PEDIATRICIAN. DR. KENNETH COHEN FROM JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL. WHY DON'T WE GET RIGHT TO WORK? DANNY HAD A PROBLEM. TAKE US BACK TO WHEN IT ALL BEGAN.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO: IT WAS 2007. I HAD THREE CHILDREN AT THE TIME. AND THEY ALL HAD A STOMACH VIRUS.

 

>>PETER SALGO: OKAY, YOU HAD ONE OLDER KID, AND THEN DANNY AND A TWIN SISTER.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO: AND HIS TWIN SISTER, YEAH, SO I HAVE AN OLDER SON AND TWINS. BUT HE WAS STILL VOMITING IN THE MORNING, A COUPLE OF WEEKS AFTER, WHEN THE OTHERS WERE BETTER, SO I BROUGHT HIM IN TO THE PEDIATRICIAN, AND THEY DID SOME BLOOD WORK AND RAN SOME TESTS, AND SET UP A PLAN FOR DANNY THAT, SINCE EVERYTHING LOOKED GOOD, WE WOULD START WITH THE GASTROENTEROLOGIST --

 

>> PETER SALGO: STOP RIGHT THERE. ALL THREE KIDS HAVE GASTROENTERITIS. TWO GET BETTER. DANNY DOES NOT.

 

>> DR. LISA HARRIS: RIGHT.

 

 

>>PETER SALGO:  YOU'RE IN THE OFFICE. WHAT ARE YOU THINKING?

 

>>DR. LISA HARRIS:  I'M JUST KIND OF WONDERING, IS THIS A LINGERING VIRUS, IF IT'S ANOTHER INFECTION, OR IS THERE SOME OTHER PROCESS THAT'S OCCURRING IN HIS STOMACH, SO I WOULD IMAGINE THAT THEY DID SOME ROUTINE BLOOD WORK, MAYBE AN ABDOMINAL SERIES, A GOOD PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, AND SET UP A PLAN TO MAKE SURE THAT HE DIDN'T BECOME DEHYDRATED TO END UP IN THE HOSPITAL.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO: WELL, THE VOMITING WAS REALLY INTERMITTENT, SO IT KIND OF WAS JUST A PUZZLE. SO AFTER THEY HAD DONE THE FIRST ROUND OF BLOOD TESTS, THEY SAT ME DOWN AND SAID, "SINCE EVERYTHING -- HE'S DEVELOPING NORMALLY, EVERYTHING ELSE IS, HE'S PERFECTLY HEALTHY, WE'LL START WITH GASTRO, SEE IF THERE'S A PROBLEM THERE. MAYBE MOVE ON TO AN E.N.T. IT COULD BE POST-NASAL DRIP," 'CAUSE IT WAS HAPPENING IN THE MORNING, "AND THEN MOVE ON TO NEUROLOGY."

 

>>PETER SALGO:  NOW HE WAS HOW OLD? NOT YET 3, RIGHT?

 

>>CHRISTINE MARQUINO: NO, HE WAS 2. SO WE DID THE BARIUM TEST, WE BROUGHT HIM FOR A BARIUM TEST, AND THEY SAID MAYBE IT MIGHT BE ACID REFLUX. THEY PUT HIM ON ZANTAC. THAT SEEMED TO WORK FOR A FEW MONTHS -- WE REALLY DIDN'T SEE ANY MORE OF IT.

 

>>DR. LISA HARRIS:  AND HE WASN'T LOSING ANY WEIGHT, AND IT DIDN'T SEEM TO BE WITH PARTICULAR MEALS OR TYPES OF FOOD OR ANYTHING LIKE THAT?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  NO -- HE WAS NOT A GOOD EATER, THOUGH. BUT WE CHALKED THAT UP TO BEING 2 YEARS OLD AND, YOU KNOW, JUST BEING STUBBORN.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  ARE ANY ALARM BELLS GOING OFF AT THIS POINT?

 

>> DR. KENNETH COHEN:  NOT YET. I MEAN, I THINK IT'S EARLY IN TERMS OF THE SYMPTOMS. ANY FUSSY, IRRITABILITY, THAT SORT OF STUFF, OR WAS IT JUST KIND OF OCCASIONAL VOMITING?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  NO, BUT THEN THE VOMITING TURNED MORE INTO WHAT I WOULD CALL EPISODES, AND IT WOULD HAPPEN IN THE MORNING, AND HE WOULD MAYBE LAY DOWN OR JUST SEEM OUT OF IT, AND IT WASN'T LIKE NORMAL VOMITING. AND IT WOULD NEVER -- IT WOULD HAPPEN ONCE, AND THEN IT WOULDN'T HAPPEN AGAIN THE REST OF THE DAY. AND ONCE HE SNAPPED OUT OF IT, HE WAS FINE.

 

>> DR. LISA HARRIS:  SO WHAT WAS DIFFERENT ABOUT THE VOMITING THAT YOU SAID IT DIDN'T SEEM LIKE NORMAL VOMITING?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  LIKE I SAID, HE WOULD HAVE TO ALWAYS LAY. HE WOULD GET QUIET.

 

>> DR. LISA HARRIS:  BEFORE OR AFTER?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  AFTER. HE WOULD THROW UP, AND THEN HE WOULD LAY DOWN, AND IT JUST SEEMED WEIRD TO ME THAT IT NEVER HAPPENED THE REST OF THE DAY. AND I WOULD ALWAYS PLAN THAT IT WOULD. YOU KNOW, ONE TIME WE WERE ON THE WAY TO AN AMUSEMENT PARK, AND I TURNED THE CAR AROUND, BECAUSE HE THREW UP IN THE CAR, AND I SAID, "OH, HE MUST BE GETTING A VI--" YOU KNOW, "HE'S SICK, WE HAVE TO GO HOME." YOU KNOW, WHEN KIDS GET SICK, THEY THROW UP A LOT.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  BUT THIS WENT ON NOW ALL THE WAY THROUGH HIS SECOND YEAR, UP TO HIS THIRD BIRTHDAY?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  NO, NO -- OH, YES, YES. ALONG THE WAY, WE DID THE GASTRO, AND THEN THE PEDIATRICIAN, AFTER A FEW MONTHS, SENT US FOR A CT SCAN, TO TAKE HIM FOR A CT SCAN BECAUSE --

 

>> PETER SALGO:  A CT SCAN OF WHAT?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  HIS BRAIN.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  OKAY, SO STOP FOR JUST A MINUTE. NOW THEY'RE GETTING WORRIED, BECAUSE THEY CAN'T FIND THE CAUSE. IT'S NOT GASTROENTERITIS. THERE'S NOTHING THAT THE GASTROENTEROLOGIST HAS FOUND. BUT NAUSEA CAN BE A SYMPTOM OF NEUROLOGIC ILLNESS AS WELL.

 

>>DR. LISA HARRIS:  RIGHT, THAT JUST KIND OF ODD VOMITING, AND IT DOESN'T SEEM TO BE A SOURCE THAT'S COMING OUT OF THE STOMACH OR OUT OF THE BACK OF THE THROAT.

 

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  AND THEN DESCRIBING HOW IT WAS, YOU KNOW, WHAT THESE EPISODES LOOKED LIKE.

 

>> DR. LISA HARRIS:  RIGHT, AND THE THOUGHT THAT HE'S FEELING A LITTLE BIT OFF WOULD MAKE YOU THINK, "IS THERE SOMETHING GOING ON IN THE HEAD?"

 

>> DR. KENNETH COHEN:  AND IT WAS EARLY-MORNING VOMITING.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:   WHEN HE WOKE UP, GENERALLY.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  SO HE GETS A CT SCAN. WHAT DID IT SHOW?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  NOTHING.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  THEN WHAT HAPPENED?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO :  WENT HOME, PUT HIM BACK ON THE ZANTAC.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  BUT THEN SOMETHING CAME TO A CRISIS. WHAT HAPPENED?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  WE EVENTUALLY -- EVENTUALLY,     RIGHT AFTER HIS THIRD BIRTHDAY, HE THREW UP AT NIGHT, WHICH WAS ODD -- IT NEVER REALLY HAPPENED AT NIGHT. AND I WENT INTO HIS ROOM, AND I BROUGHT HIM TO THE BATHROOM, AND AFTER SO LONG, IT JUST SEEMED NATURAL, BUT HIS EYES HAD STAYED FIXED, AND HE WAS ON MY LAP, I THOUGHT HE WAS LOOKING AT THE NIGHT LIGHT IN THE BATHROOM, AND I SHUT THE NIGHT LIGHT OFF, BUT YOU KNOW, AS A MOTHER, INSTANTLY. SO WE PUT HIS COAT ON, AND HE'S BREATHING NORMAL, BUT HE'S NOT TALKING, HIS EYES ARE FIXED IN POSITION. WE BRING HIM TO THE E.R. THEY TRY TO GIVE HIM ATIVAN TO GET HIM OUT OF THE SEIZURE. THEY INTUBATE HIM TO GIVE HIM STRONGER MEDS, THEY SEND HIM FOR --

 

>> PETER SALGO:  "INTUBATE HIM" MEANS THEY PUT A TUBE IN HIS MOUTH TO BREATHE FOR HIM AND PROTECT HIS AIRWAY.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  THEY DID.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  AND THEN WHAT?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  THEY BROUGHT HIM RIGHT FOR A CT SCAN, AND IT CAME BACK ENLARGED VENTRICLES, HYDROCEPHALUS.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  "ENLARGED VENTRICLES" MEANS THAT YOUR BRAIN HAS THESE CONTAINERS INSIDE, FULL OF FLUID -- THEY'RE THE VENTRICLES IN YOUR BRAIN -- AND THEY'RE TOO BIG, WHICH MEANS THE PRESSURE IN THERE IS TOO HIGH. SO NOW WHAT'S GOING THROUGH YOUR HEAD?

 

>> DR. KENNETH COHEN:  YEAH, SO, I MEAN, THAT'S THE STORY OF OBSTRUCTIVE HYDROCEPHALUS, OR SOME SORT OF HYDROCEPHALUS. SO SOMETHING IN --

 

>> PETER SALGO:  "HYDROCEPHALUS" IS "WATER ON THE BRAIN," LITERALLY.

 

>> DR. KENNETH COHEN:  EXACTLY, BUT ESSENTIALLY THE VENTRICLES ARE LARGE, EITHER BECAUSE SOMETHING IS BLOCKING THE VENTRICLES' ABILITY TO MOVE FLUID OUT, OR BECAUSE THEY'RE NOT ABSORBING THE FLUID PROPERLY. AND THAT CONSOLATION OF HAVING THE ENLARGED VENTRICLES CAUSES, TYPICALLY, VOMIT--

 

>>DR. LISA HARRIS:  SO NOW YOU'VE GOT A KID THAT'S GOT ABNORMAL VOMITING THAT'S BEING A LITTLE WEIRD AND HAS AN ABNORMAL CT SCAN FINDING -- I'M CONCERNED.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  I READ THIS IN THE MEDICAL TEXTBOOKS UNDER "BAD."

 

>> DR. KENNETH COHEN: YES.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  THIS IS NOT GOOD.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  NO, NOT GOOD.

 

>>PETER SALGO:   AND THEY DID AN MRI. WHAT DID --

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  NOT YET, NO.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  YOU AND I HAVE SPOKEN. I'M JUST GOING TO PUSH US FORWARD A LITTLE BIT.

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  OKAY, IT WAS A FEW DAYS LATER, THEY THOUGHT IT WAS JUST HYDROCEPHALUS, WHICH WOULD EXPLAIN THE SYMPTOMS. THEY, THANKFULLY, DIDN'T PUT IN A PERMANENT SHUNT. THEY PUT IN AN EXTERNAL SHUNT TO WATCH HIM.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  BUT WHEN THEY DID THE MRI, WHAT DID THEY FIND?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO: THEY DID AN MRI, AND THEY FOUND SPOTS ON HIS BRAIN. THERE WAS NO TUMOR INSIDE HIS BRAIN, BUT THERE WERE THESE SPOTS THAT THEY THOUGHT COULD HAVE EITHER BEEN CAUSED BY A TUMOR OR COULD HAVE BEEN INFECTIOUS DISEASE. SO THEN THEY SENT HIM FOR A SPINAL MRI. AND THE SPINAL MRI SHOWED THAT HE DID, INDEED, HAVE A TUMOR BETWEEN T8 AND T10.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  OKAY, SO HE HAD A TUMOR. TURNED OUT TO BE A FAIRLY UNCOMMON TUMOR, A PMA, A PILOMYXOID ASTROCYTOMA.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  MM-HMM.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  RIGHT. NOW, AT THIS POINT, WHAT DO YOU TELL A PARENT?

 

 

>>DR. KENNETH COHEN:  SO, YOU KNOW, I TEND TO SEE PARENTS AFTER THE DIAGNOSIS HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED, AND THEY COME TO THE ONCOLOGIST, OR IN MY CASE, A NEURO-ONCOLOGIST, AND WE TELL THEM WHAT THEY ALREADY KNOW A LITTLE BIT, WHICH IS, "YOUR CHILD HAS A TUMOR. WE DON'T KNOW WHAT THAT TUMOR IS. WE HAVE TO DO THE WORK TO FIGURE THAT OUT."

 

 

>>PETER SALGO:  THIS IS DEVASTATING NEWS. DEVASTATING NEWS. WHEN YOU HEARD THAT, WHAT WAS THAT LIKE?

 

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  IT WAS ABSOLUTELY HORRIBLE. ALTHOUGH I HAD A LITTLE BIT OF WARNING -- I JUST KIND OF KNEW, THE WAY THE DOCTORS WERE BEHAVING -- IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT, THEY WERE IN AND OUT -- HE WAS IN THE ICU AT THE TIME. AND I ACTUALLY CALLED MY HUSBAND AND SAID, "GET UP HERE EARLY --IT'S GOING TO BE BAD." THERE WAS GOING TO BE BAD NEWS. AND THEN I CALLED MY SISTER AND MY HUSBAND'S BROTHER AND SAID, "WE'RE GOING TO GET VERY BAD NEWS, I KNOW IT."

 

>>PETER SALGO:  IT'S A 3-YEAR-OLD BOY.

 

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  HE WAS A BABY, STILL IN DIAPERS.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  AND HE WENT FOR SURGERY TO REMOVE THE TUMOR.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  HE DID.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  AND THEN HE NEEDED CHEMOTHERAPY AND PILLS. WHAT'S IT LIKE, GIVING PILLS TO A 3-YEAR-OLD THAT ARE LIFE-AND-DEATH, AND HE DOESN'T WANT THEM?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  WELL, IN ADDITION TO THE PILLS, HE DID IV CHEMO, AND

THE PILLS WERE MUCH HARDER, BECAUSE HE, AT THE TIME, WAS SO LITTLE HE COULDN'T SWALLOW PILLS, SO WE HAD TO OPEN THEM UP, PUT THEM IN APPLE JUICE, BUT YOU CAN'T JUST PUT THEM IN A CUP, BECAUSE WHAT IF HE DOESN'T DRINK THE WHOLE CUP, AND THEN HE DOESN'T GET ALL THE PILLS? AND THEY'RE NOT MEANT TO BE OPENED, AND THEY TELL YOU TO WEAR A MASK AND WEAR GLOVES SO THAT YOU DON'T GET ANY ON YOU. BUT YOU'RE PUTTING IT IN YOUR KID'S MOUTH.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  THIS WENT ON FOR HOW LONG, 72 WEEKS?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  HIS FIRST REGIMEN, YEAH, WAS 72 WEEKS.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  MRIs EVERY THREE MONTHS. DID THEY GIVE YOU A PROGNOSIS FOR DANNY?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  [ SIGHS ] NO, THEY SAID -- IT WAS VERY NEW -- WHEN HE GOT DIAGNOSED IN 2007, IT HAD ONLY BEEN RECOGNIZED, PMA, AS AN ENTITY, SINCE 2006. THEY SAID, "THERE'S NO CURE. BUT WE DIDN'T REALLY TALK MUCH ABOUT PROGNOSIS. IT'S A SCARY THING.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  THE CHEMO KIND OF HELD IT IN CHECK FOR A WHILE.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  THAT'S WHAT WE EXPECTED THE CHEMO TO DO. HIS CASE IS VERY STRANGE, IN THAT ONCE THE TUMOR WAS REMOVED, WHICH IS, YOU KNOW, THE BEST CURE, HE STILL HAS THE LEPTOMENINGEAL SPREAD THROUGHOUT HIS BRAIN AND SPINE.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  SO THERE'S SPREAD AROUND THE TISSUE AROUND THE BRAIN.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  AND THE WHOLE SPINE.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  BUT FOR 2½ YEARS --

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  THE BEST WE COULD HOPE FOR IS STABILITY, REALLY.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  RIGHT. BUT IT CAME BACK.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  THE TUMOR GREW BACK, MM-HMM.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  SO NOW YOU'VE BEEN THROUGH ALL OF THIS, 2½ YEARS INTO THE COURSE, IT'S BACK. WHAT'S THAT LIKE? HOW DO YOU TALK TO DANNY ABOUT THAT?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  WELL, THE SECOND TIME WAS SCARIER, I THINK, BECAUSE WE KNEW MORE THEN. YOU KNOW, IN THE BEGINNING, YOU KIND OF JUST GO ON AUTOPILOT, AND YOU JUST DO WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO, AND YOU LISTEN TO THE DOCTORS, AND YOU'RE SCARED, AND YOU'RE NERVOUS, AND IT'S REALLY LIKE AN OUT-OF-BODY EXPERIENCE. BUT THE SECOND TIME IT COMES BACK, YOU KNOW NOW HE'S GOING IN FOR SPINAL SURGERY, AND YOU'RE LISTENING TO WHAT COULD HAPPEN ON THE TABLE, WHERE BEFORE, YOU'RE JUST THINKING, "I HAVE TO GET IT OUT, I HAVE TO GET A DIAGNOSIS, WE HAVE TO MOVE ON." THE SECOND TIME WAS VERY, VERY SCARY, THE SURGERY. AND THE OTHER KIDS WERE GETTING OLDER, SO THEY THOUGHT, "HE ALREADY DID CHEMO. HE'S DONE. WHAT'S GOING ON? WHY ARE WE BACK AT THIS?"

 

>>PETER SALGO:  AND THE TUMOR WAS BACK.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  IT WAS BACK.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  THIS IS DREADFUL NEWS AGAIN. WHAT IS -- GIVE ME A SENSE, BEFORE WE GO TO A BREAK, WHAT IS YOUR HOUSEHOLD LIKE WHEN YOU HEAR THIS NEWS? HE HAS AN OLDER BROTHER WHO CAN UNDERSTAND MORE. DANNY, NOW, THE SECOND TIME, HAS A LITTLE MORE SENSE OF WHAT'S GOING ON. HE'S GOT A TWIN SISTER, AND YOU AND YOUR HUSBAND, OF COURSE, KNOW EVERYTHING. WHAT'S IT LIKE? WHAT WERE YOU LIKE?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  WELL, WE REALLY -- I HAVE TO SAY -- IT'S FUNNY -- I'LL GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE. HIS TWIN SISTER WILL SAY, "WELL, EVERYBODY'S BORN WITH SOMETHING. I WAS BORN WITH ECZEMA. DANNY WAS BORN WITH BRAIN CANCER." WE REALLY JUST TRY TO KEEP IT -- I DON'T WANT TO SCARE THEM. THEIR LIFE IS SCARY ENOUGH. BUT I CAN'T UNDERSTAND IT. HOW COULD I EXPECT MY KIDS TO UNDERSTAND IT?

 

>> PETER SALGO:  THIS IS TOUGH.

 

 

>> DR. LISA HARRIS:  I HAVE TO COMMEND YOU FOR REALLY TRYING TO MAINTAIN SOMEWHAT OF A NORMAL HOUSEHOLD AND TRYING TO --

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  WE DO, WE DO. WHY SCARE THEM? IT IS OUR LIFE. IT DEFINITELY IS OUR WHOLE EXISTENCE, BUT THEY DON'T KNOW THAT. THEY -- WE LIVE. WE JUST LIVE OUR LIFE.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  AND WITH THAT, I JUST WANT TO PAUSE FOR JUST A BIT. STAY WHERE YOU ALL ARE. WE'LL BE BACK TO HEAR MORE ABOUT THIS DISEASE AND YOUR SECOND OPINION, BUT FIRST, HERE'S THIS WEEK'S "MYTH OR MEDICINE."

 

>> NARRATOR:  FEW THINGS ARE AS SAD OR SHOCKING THAN TO HEAR OF A CHILD DIAGNOSED WITH CANCER, AND, ALTHOUGH THEY ARE RARE, THE TYPES OF CANCERS THAT DEVELOP IN CHILDREN ARE OFTEN DIFFERENT THAN THOSE IN ADULTS, AND SOME OF THE TREATMENTS MAY HAVE A MORE SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON A CHILD'S GROWING BODY. DOES THIS MEAN THAT NEW CANCER TREATMENTS ARE NOT SAFE FOR CHILDREN? IS THIS MYTH OR MEDICINE?

 

>>DR. JEFF ANDOLINA:  "NEW CANCER TREATMENTS ARE NOT SAFE FOR CHILDREN." THAT IS A MYTH, AND I'M GOING TO TELL YOU WHY. MY NAME IS JEFF ANDOLINA, AND I AM A PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGIST AND ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PEDIATRICS AT THE GOLISANO CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER MEDICAL CENTER. IT IS ABSOLUTELY A MYTH THAT CHILDREN SHOULD NOT BE ABLE TO GET NEW DRUGS OR WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO TOLERATE THE SAME NEW CANCER DRUGS AND TREATMENTS THAT ADULTS RECEIVE. CHILDREN TOLERATE CHEMOTHERAPY, SURGERY, AND RADIATION EVEN BETTER THAN ADULTS DO. CHILDREN ARE MORE PHYSICALLY RESILIENT, AND THEY'RE TYPICALLY MORE MENTALLY RESILIENT THAN ARE ADULTS. SO IN ALMOST ALL CASES, CHILDREN WOULD BE A MORE IDEAL POPULATION IN WHICH TO START A NEW DRUG OR TREATMENT.

 

>> NARRATOR:  A VIEWER ASKS, "SHOULD MY OTHER CHILDREN BE CHECKED FOR CANCER?"

 

>> DR. JEFF ANDOLINA:  IN GENERAL, THE ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION IS, "NO." GREATER THAN 95% OF ALL CHILDREN'S CANCERS ARE NOT INHERITED AND ARE NOT PASSED GENETICALLY FROM A PARENT OR ANY OTHER FAMILY MEMBER. UNFORTUNATELY, MOST CHILDHOOD CANCER IS SPORADIC. WE DO NOT UNDERSTAND WHY CHILDHOOD CANCER ARISES. CONVERSELY, THERE ARE A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES WHERE THERE MAY BE MULTIPLE CASES OF CHILDHOOD CANCER. THE ONLY WAY A SIBLING WOULD NEED TO BE SCREENED FOR CANCER IS IF YOU WERE IN THAT RARE FAMILY THAT HAVE HAD MULTIPLE CASES OF CANCER IN YOUNG CHILDREN, SO IN MOST CASES THERE IS REALLY NO ADDITIONAL TESTING FOR OTHER SIBLINGS OR OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS WHEN A CHILD GETS DIAGNOSED WITH CANCER. AND THAT'S MEDICINE.

 

>> NARRATOR:  NOT SURE IF IT'S MYTH OR MEDICINE? CONNECT WITH US ONLINE. WE'LL GET TO WORK AND GET YOU A SECOND OPINION.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  WE'RE BACK. CHRISTINE, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR SHARING YOUR STORY. CHRISTINE IS A MOM. ONE OF HER CHILDREN, DANNY, WAS DIAGNOSED WITH PEDIATRIC CANCER AT THE AGE OF 3. AND SINCE THEN, DANNY'S BEEN GOING THROUGH CHEMOTHERAPY AND SURGERY, AND THE OTHER KIDS HAVE HAD TO DEAL WITH THAT, AND YOUR HOUSEHOLD HAS HAD TO DEAL WITH THAT. AND AS YOU TOLD ME BEFORE WE WENT TO THE BREAK, IT'S SORT OF CONSUMED ALL OF YOUR LIFE. DANNY, I KNOW, IS IN A PRIVATE SCHOOL, A CATHOLIC SCHOOL, RIGHT?

 

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  MM-HMM.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  BECAUSE PUBLIC SCHOOL DIDN'T WORK FOR HIM. BUT I WANT TO GET ON TO THE MEDICINE OF THIS A LITTLE BIT, BECAUSE IN THE PAST, WHEN I WAS AN INTERN AND PTERODACTYLS FLOWED THROUGH THE SKY, ONE OF THE REASONS I DIDN'T DO PEDIATRICS, BECAUSE THE PROGNOSIS WAS SO UNIFORMLY GRIM. WHAT IS THE OUTLOOK NOW FOR PEDIATRIC CANCERS?

 

>>DR. KENNETH COHEN:  YEAH, SO IT'S REALLY CHANGED A GREAT DEAL, AND IN REALLY A GENERATION OF TIME, OR MAYBE A LITTLE BIT LONGER, AND SO TODAY IF YOU TAKE ALL CHILDREN WITH CANCER, REGARDLESS OF DIAGNOSIS, YOU KNOW, WE WILL CURE SOMEWHERE IN THE RANGE OF ABOUT 70% OF THOSE KIDS, 75% OF THOSE KIDS.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  70%, AND WE'RE NOT TALKING ABOUT HOLDING CHECK. YOU USED THE "C" WORD, THE "CURE" WORD. THAT'S DRAMATIC.

 

>>DR. KENNETH COHEN:  THAT YOU ARE CURED OF YOUR CANCER, THAT YOU WILL GROW UP AND HOPEFULLY DIE OF OLD AGE, I MEAN.

 

>> PETER SALGO: WHICH BRINGS UP A QUESTION -- IF YOU CAN GET KIDS THROUGH CHILDHOOD ALIVE, CAN THEY EFFECTIVELY GROW OUT OF CANCER? THE CHILDHOOD CANCERS DON'T AFFECT THEM WHEN THEY'RE AN ADULT?

 

>>DR. KENNETH COHEN:  WELL, I DON'T KNOW THAT IT'S SO MUCH THAT THEY GROW OUT OF CANCER. I THINK THAT THE TYPES OF CANCERS THAT CHILDREN DEVELOP ARE JUST ENTIRELY DIFFERENT THAT THE TYPES OF CANCERS THAT ADULTS DEVELOP.

>> PETER SALGO:  BUT DO THEY PERSIST INTO ADULT LIFE, I GUESS, IS WHAT I'M ASKING.

 

>>DR. KENNETH COHEN:  THERE ARE SOME THAT CAN. MOST CANCERS, AS YOU CAN IMAGINE, ARE CURED OR NOT. AND SO EITHER YOU'RE FIXED, OR YOU DIE OF YOUR DISEASE. THERE ARE SOME CASES, MUCH LIKE DANNY'S CASE, WHERE THERE IS MORE OF A CHRONICITY TO THE DISEASE, AND YOU HAVE TO THINK ABOUT A PLAN THAT'S A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT THAN A ONE-YEAR PLAN OR A TWO-YEAR PLAN, BUT RATHER A FIVE- OR A TEN- OF A FIFTEEN-YEAR PLAN.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  WHICH BRINGS US TO DOLLARS AND CENTS, WHICH IS, THIS PROGRESS DIDN'T COME FOR FREE. THIS IS THE INVESTMENT OF MILLIONS, IF NOT BILLIONS, OF DOLLARS IN RESEARCH MONEY. IS THE MONEY STILL THERE?

 

>> THE MONEY IS -- WELL, THE SHORT ANSWER IS, "NO." THERE'S NOT AS MUCH MONEY AS THERE USED TO BE, IF YOU LOOK AT THINGS LIKE THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE AND THE RESOURCES THAT ARE PUT TO BEAR ON THESE SORTS OF PROBLEMS. THE DOLLARS HAVE TO BE HOBBLED TOGETHER A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENTLY NOW, SO BUDGETS ARE SMALLER FROM THE GOVERNMENT. WE RELY MORE ON PHILANTHROPY, FOUNDATIONS, OTHER WAYS TO RAISE DOLLARS TO DO THE RESEARCH THAT WE NEED TO DO.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  BUT, YOU KNOW, IF YOU GIVE A KID BACK -- THIS IS ALWAYS THE ARGUMENT I LIKE -- IF YOU GIVE A KID BACK HIS LIFE OR HER LIFE, YOU'RE DEALING WITH 40, 50, 60, 70 YEARS OF LIFE. YOU DEAL WITH SOMEONE OLDER, THE -- I HATE TO PUT IT IN THIS TERM, BUT THE COST PER YEAR IS HIGHER.

 

>>DR. KENNETH COHEN:  RIGHT.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  YOU GET MORE BANG FOR YOUR BUCK GETTING KIDS BETTER, I GUESS, IS WHAT I'M TRYING TO SAY.

 

>>DR. KENNETH COHEN:  I THINK IT'S TRUE. UNFORTUNATELY, BECAUSE THESE ARE VERY RARE DIAGNOSES, SO RECOGNIZE THAT IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY, IN ADULTS, THERE'S OVER A MILLION CASES OF CANCER. THAT COMPARES TO ABOUT 12,000 CASES IN ALL CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES, SO WHILE THEY'RE VERY NOTABLE AND THEY'RE VERY... TUG AT EVERYBODY'S HEART STRINGS, THEY'RE JUST A SMALL NUMBER. AND AS I SAY TO PEOPLE, THERE IS NO PEDIATRIC CANCER STAMP. THERE'S A BREAST CANCER STAMP. THERE'S NO PEDIATRIC CANCER STAMP.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  LET'S GO BACK AND TALK ABOUT YOU, YOUR FAMILY, DANNY A LITTLE BIT NOW HE GOES TO SCHOOL.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  YES.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  AND HOW'S HE DOING?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  HE DOES OKAY. HE'S DELAYED. I MEAN, I DON'T KNOW WHAT THE CAUSE IS, WHETHER IT'S HIS TREATMENT OR HIS CANCER OR JUST HIS -- THE SUM OF HIS LIFE EXPERIENCE, BUT HE'S VERY HAPPY. HE'S VERY HAPPY.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  OKAY, NOW, HE HAS SEIZURES.

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  YES.

 

 

>> PETER SALGO:  AND YOU TOLD ME THAT THAT, IN FACT, IS WHAT SCARES THE KIDS IN THE FAMILY THE MOST.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  ABSOLUTELY. BECAUSE THEY CAN'T SEE CANCER. THEY CAN SEE HIM HAVE A SEIZURE. THAT'S VERY SCARY, SO WHEN HE RECURRED THIS LAST TIME, I TOLD THE KIDS, "LISTEN, IT'S GOING TO BE GOOD -- WE'RE GOING TO PUT HIM BACK ON MEDICINE AND HOPEFULLY STOP THE SEIZURES." SO THAT REALLY -- THEY WERE HAPPY WITH THAT. THEY WERE HAPPY WITH THAT ANSWER. THEY JUST, THEY DON'T WANT TO SEE HIM SUFFER.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  OKAY, SO THE SEIZURES WERE, AT LEAST, POTENTIALLY, CONTROLLABLE. THE CANCER, HE WAS ON THERAPY FOR IT, AND MAYBE IT HAD GONE AWAY UNTIL LAST JANUARY.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  MM-HMM.

 

 

>>PETER SALGO:  THEN WHAT HAPPENED?

 

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  HE HAD ANOTHER EPISODE OF -- HIS FIRST EPISODE, ACTUALLY, OF SEIZURE AFTER SEIZURE AFTER SEIZURE, WE HAD TO BRING HIM INTO THE E.R. THEY GOT IT UNDER CONTROL, STARTED SOME NEW MEDS, DID AN MRI, AND THE SPREAD HAD LOOKED MORE ENHANCED. THERE WERE LIGHTER SPOTS THAT WERE DARKER -- THAT USED TO BE DARK, NOW LIGHT -- SO WE HAD TO START CHEMO AGAIN.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  HIS THIRD TIME THROUGH IT ALL.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  YES.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  HOW IS THE FAMILY DOING? HOW IS HE DOING WITH THAT?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  THIS ACTUAL PROTOCOL IS -- WELL, I DON'T TAKE IT, BUT IT'S NOT THAT BAD, BECAUSE IT'S FOUR CHEMOTHERAPY AGENTS, BUT THREE ARE ORAL, AND SINCE OUR NIGHTMARE OF THE LAST ORAL, WE HAVE SINCE -- DANNY COULD SWALLOW ANY PILL, ANY SIZE, AT ANY TIME. SO THREE ARE ORAL. HE TAKES THEM AT HOME. SO IT'S NOT THE LONG HOSPITAL -- YOU KNOW, SITTING IN THE HOSPITAL FOR HOURS AND HOURS AND THE DRIP GOING IN AND GETTING BABYSITTERS AND OUR WHOLE LIFE UPENDED. WE CAN GIVE HIM MOST OF HIS MEDICINE AT HOME.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  SO, FOR BETTER OR WORSE, YOU'VE BECOME A WORLD EXPERT ON HOW TO DEAL WITH KIDS WITH CANCER. WHAT ADVICE DO YOU HAVE FOR PARENTS WHO ARE WATCHING?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  MY ADVICE FOR PARENTS WATCHING IS, ABSOLUTELY DO YOUR RESEARCH, GET OPINIONS, TALK TO DOCTORS, TALK TO, ESPECIALLY, OTHER MOTHERS, WHETHER IT BE ONLINE, IN PERSON. JUST KEEP TALKING -- SYMPTOMS, ANYTHING. ANY HELP THAT YOU CAN GET OR ANY KNOWLEDGE THAT YOU CAN GET ANYWHERE, YOU NEED TO KNOW IT. YOU NEED TO KNOW WHAT TO LOOK FOR, YOU NEED TO KNOW WHAT TO DO.

 

 

>>PETER SALGO:  TAKE YOUR TIME, GET THE RIGHT HELP?

 

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  ABSOLUTELY, GET THE RIGHT HELP. DON'T JUST SETTLE, DON'T -- YOU DON'T HAVE TO SETTLE FOR THE FIRST TIME. UNLESS IT'S AN EMERGENCY, EVEN IF IT TAKES A COUPLE OF DAYS, REACH OUT -- THE HOSPITALS ARE MORE THAN WILLING TO HELP. I DON'T KNOW HOW IT WORKS IN THE ADULT ONCOLOGY WORLD, BUT I KNOW IN PEDIATRICS, IT COULDN'T BE MORE HELPFUL. IT'S A SMALL COMMUNITY OF NEURO-ONCOLOGISTS, AND ANYBODY I'VE EVER REACHED OUT TO FOR HELP, WHETHER E-MAILING A DOCTOR, A HOSPITAL, EVERYBODY'S GOTTEN BACK TO ME. YOU HAVE TO KNOW WHAT YOU'RE DEALING WITH. YOU CAN'T JUST ACCEPT.

 

>>DR. LISA HARRIS:  AND AGAIN, I THINK THAT'S THE NATURE, ONE, OF PEDIATRICS, AND THEN, AS KEN MENTIONED, OF HAVING A SMALLER COHORT OF FOLKS, IT JUST ALLOWS YOU TO BE MORE PERSONAL, MORE HANDS-ON, EXACTLY.

 

 

>>PETER SALGO:  SO HERE YOU HAVE GREAT EXPERTS, AND IT'S TIME FOR YOU TO GET A SECOND OPINION. IS THERE ANYTHING YOU'D LIKE TO ASK THEM?

 

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  YES. MY "SECOND OPINION" QUESTION IS, NOW, WITH ALL THE RESEARCH, THERE'S A LOT OF SUBTYPES COMING OUT OF LOW-GRADE GLIOMAS. THERE'S MANY DIFFERENT TYPES, AND THERE'S MANY DIFFERENT MUTATIONS NOW. AND WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD FOR THESE KIDS, WHETHER THEY HAVE A MUTATION OR THEY DON'T, AND WHAT SHOULD A PARENT DO TO FIND OUT MORE? IT'S SO CUTTING-EDGE. WHERE DOES A PARENT GO FROM HERE?

 

>>DR. KENNETH COHEN: YEAH, IT'S A VERY EXCITING TIME, ACTUALLY, I THINK, WITHIN THE FIELD, BECAUSE FOR THE FIRST TIME, WE REALLY HAVE AN ARMAMENTARIUM OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS THAT ARE ALLOWING US TO REALLY INTERROGATE THESE TUMORS IN A WAY THAT WE NEVER COULD BEFORE. AND AS WE'VE TALKED ABOUT A LITTLE BIT OFFLINE, YOU KNOW, HISTORICALLY UP TO THIS DAY, IT WAS REALLY THE EYES OF THE PATHOLOGISTS. THEY SAID, "THIS IS WHAT IT IS AND THIS IS WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE, AND THIS IS THE BEST THING WE CAN CALL IT, AND WE'LL SORT OF PUT IT INTO THIS CATEGORY." NOW I THINK WE HAVE A GROWING LIST OF WAYS TO TEST AND LOOK AT TUMORS TO REALIZE THAT WHAT THEY LOOK LIKE UNDER THE MICROSCOPE MAY OR MAY NOT NECESSARILY DEFINE THE BEHAVIOR OF THE TUMOR. AND THAT WILL LEAD TO, OR IT'S BEGINNING TO LEAD TO THERAPIES THAT ARE MORE SPECIFIC TO WHAT DRIVES DANNY'S TUMOR, AS OPPOSED TO A GENERIC SORT OF, "WE'RE GOING TO THROW A COCKTAIL OF STUFF AT YOU AND HOPE THAT IT HAPPENS TO WORK IN A MORE NONSPECIFIC SORT OF WAY."

 

>> PETER SALGO:  SO THE LANDSCAPE IS CHANGING, AND IT'S GETTING BETTER. I WANT TO GO BACK A LITTLE BIT TO YOU -- I DON'T WANT TO LEAVE WITHOUT GETTING MORE OF A SENSE OF DANNY, BECAUSE TELL ME IF I'M WRONG, BUT TO ME, SOMETIMES PEOPLE WITH CANCER ARE TUMORS THAT HAPPEN TO HAVE PEOPLE ATTACHED. BUT DANNY'S YOUR SON. HE'S YOUR BOY.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  HE'S MY BOY.

 

 

>> PETER SALOG:  YOU TOLD ME A STORY I WANT YOU TO SHARE WITH OUR AUDIENCE. YOU WENT OUT TO SHEA STADIUM, OR I GUESS IT WAS CITI FIELD, BECAUSE HE'S A METS FAN.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  MIGHT HAVE BEEN SHEA STILL.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  WHAT HAPPENED?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO: [ LAUGHS ] HE'S VERY SPECIAL, DANNY, HE'S VERY DYNAMIC. PEOPLE ARE JUST DRAWN TO HIM, IT'S BIZARRE, NOT KNOWING THAT HE HAS CANCER, AND WE WENT OUT TO SHEA, I THINK IT WAS SHEA. AND MY HUSBAND KNEW SOMEBODY, THEY GOT ON THE FIELD FOR THE BATTING PRACTICE, MY KIDS, AND MIKE DAVIS, AT THE TIME, CAME AND PICKED HIM OUT OF THE WHOLE CROWD AND SAID --

 

>> PETER SALGO:  FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO DON'T KNOW, THAT'S A MET.

 

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  [ LAUGHS ] THAT'S A MET. AND HE SAID, "GET ME THAT BOY RIGHT THERE, GET ME THAT BOY," AND PICKED HIM UP OVER THE FENCE AND TOOK HIM TO FIRST BASE AND WAS TALKING TO HIM, AND THE WHOLE CROWD STARTS LAUGHING, AND I'M IN THE STANDS, AND IT TURNS OUT THAT MIKE DAVIS LEANED OVER AND SAID, "HI, WHAT'S YOUR NAME, DO YOU WANT ME TO SIGN YOUR BALL?" AND HE SAID, "NO, THANK YOU. DAVID WRIGHT ALREADY DID." SO HE HAD NO TIME.

 

>> [ LAUGHTER ]

 

>>PETER SALGO:  CANCER OR NOT, HE'S A KID.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  HE'S A LITTLE KID.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  HE'S YOUR BOY.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  HE'S JUST A LITTLE BOY.

 

>> PETER SALGO: HOW'S YOUR HUSBAND DOING?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  HE'S GOOD. MY HUSBAND'S A GREAT DAD.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  THEY'RE DOING OKAY?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  YEP.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  WELL, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR SHARING THIS STORY. THIS IS TREMENDOUSLY MOVING. I'D LIKE TO ECHO WHAT THEY'VE BEEN SAYING -- IT SOUNDS LIKE YOU'RE DOING AN AMAZING JOB.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  [ CHUCKLES ]

 

 

>> PETER SALGO:  BUT THIS ISN'T OVER, IS IT?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  NO, IT'S -- NO. IT'S A LONG ROAD, LONG ROAD STILL AHEAD.

 

>> PETER SALGO:  AND YOU LIVE WITH THIS EVERY DAY.

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  YES.

 

>>PETER SALGO:  HOW DO YOU GET THROUGH THE DAY?

 

>> CHRISTINE MARQUINO:  YOU HAVE FOUR KIDS. YOU HAVE TO GET THROUGH THE DAY. CANCER DOESN'T STOP FOR THE OTHER THREE KIDS, SO...

 

 

>> PETER SALGO:  THANK YOU SO MUCH, CHRISTINE, FOR SHARING YOUR STORY WITH US. AND, PANEL, I WANT TO THANK BOTH OF YOU FOR BEING HERE AS WELL AND GIVING US YOUR INSIGHTS ON THIS CASE. LET US KNOW WHAT YOU THINK ABOUT TODAY'S DISCUSSION AND CHRISTINE'S SECOND OPINION BY TWEETING US OR COMMENTING ON OUR FACEBOOK PAGE. AND NOW, FOR THE LAST WORD ON CHILDHOOD CANCER, HERE'S THIS WEEK'S "SECOND OPINION 5."

 

>> LAURIE NAPOLEONE :  HELLO, I'M LAURIE NAPOLEONE, A PARENT WHO HAS LOST A CHILD TO CANCER. I'M HERE TO SHARE FIVE THINGS TO DO WHEN A CHILD IS DIAGNOSED WITH CANCER. THE FIRST THING TO DO IS LISTEN CAREFULLY TO THE TEAM OF PHYSICIANS, NURSES, AND MEDICAL STAFF ABOUT TREATMENT OPTIONS. JOT DOWN ANY QUESTIONS AS THEY COME TO MIND, AND REMEMBER THAT ALL QUESTIONS ARE IMPORTANT, AS YOU ARE THE CHILD'S ADVOCATE. SECOND, BECOME FAMILIAR WITH POTENTIAL RESOURCES AND UTILIZE THEM. THE SOCIAL WORKER WILL BECOME AN ASSET TO YOU AND SHOULD ASSIST YOU IN FINDING OTHER RESOURCES THAT YOU MAY NEED. REACH OUT TO THE CHAPLAIN OR OTHER SPIRITUAL LEADERS ASK ABOUT LOCAL AND REGIONAL SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE, SUCH AS FINANCIAL OR SUPPORT GROUPS. AND ASK FOR THE LOCATION OF THE NEAREST RONALD McDONALD HOUSE. THE THIRD THING TO DO IS ALLOW FAMILY AND FRIENDS TO ASSIST AND SUPPORT YOU. ALLOW THEM TO BRING MEALS, FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE, OR WATCH OTHER CHILDREN THAT MAY BE LEFT AT HOME DURING HOSPITAL STAYS. YOU WILL NEED THEM, AND THEY WILL WANT TO HELP. FOURTH, DISCUSS THE ILLNESS WITH YOUR EMPLOYER AND FIND OUT YOUR INSURANCE COVERAGE, ALLOTTED TIME OFF, AND BECOME FAMILIAR WITH THE FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE ACT. AND LASTLY, DO NOT BE AFRAID TO ASK FOR A SECOND OPINION TO CROSS-CHECK THE TREATMENT PLAN IN THE BEST INTEREST OF YOUR CHILD. FIND ONLINE SOURCES TO ASSIST YOU IN FINDING THE BEST FACILITIES AND EXPERTS FOR THAT PARTICULAR TYPE OF CANCER. AND THAT'S YOUR "SECOND OPINION 5."

 

>>PETER SALGO:  THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR WATCHING, AND REMEMBER, YOU CAN GET MORE SECOND OPINIONS AND PATIENT STORIES ON OUR WEBSITE AT secondopinion-tv.org. SEND US YOUR SHOW IDEAS AND SHARE YOUR OWN STORY. MAYBE WE'LL INVITE YOU TO BE ON THE SHOW WITH US. YOU CAN CONTINUE THIS CONVERSATION ON FACEBOOK AND TWITTER, WHERE WE ARE LIVE EVERY DAY WITH BREAKING HEALTH NEWS. I'M DR. PETER SALGO. AND I'LL SEE YOU NEXT TIME FOR ANOTHER "SECOND OPINION."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

>>NARRATOR:  "SECOND OPINION" IS BROUGHT TO YOU BY BLUE CROSS/BLUE SHIELD, ACCEPTED IN ALL 50 STATES. BLUE CROSS/BLUE SHIELD -- LIVE FEARLESS.

               

                >>ANNOUNCER: "SECOND OPINION" IS PRODUCED IN CONJUNCTION WITH U.R. MEDICINE, PART OF UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER MEDICAL CENTER, ROCHESTER, NEW YORK.